Thursday, April 10, 2008

The Realm of The Winter Kingdom...

Four years ago, via, I was able to give the first significant publicity to IQ and the Wealth of Nations, the luminous book on IQ and the diverging economic performance of different countries co-authored by Richard Lynn with Tatu Vanhanen. Now Professor Lynn has followed up with another important book, Race Differences in Intelligence: An Evolutionary Analysis.

Its central finding: the world average IQ is no more than 90, equivalent to the mental age of a white 14-year-old. (Standardized IQ tests are normed to 100, the mental age of the average white 16-year-old.) Lynn also draws attention to the fact that a north-south IQ continuum has evolved, apparently through selection for survival in cold winters.

These findings in Lynn’s latest book have profound geopolitical significance. They imply it may simply not be possible to transmit Western-style democratic and economic systems to the populations of Latin America and Moslem North Africa and the Middle East, let alone sub-Saharan Africa. They mean that the world’s long-term problems will stem from its populations' capabilities—much deeper and more intractable than any "Clash of Civilizations"-style competition between different political concepts.

The implications for immigration are obvious: it can have fundamental, and permanent, consequences.

Lynn begins by putting the problem in context by summarizing Harry Jerison’s (1973) classic study, The Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence. This showed that during the course of evolution, species have evolved greater intelligence in order to survive in more cognitively demanding environments. The same principle, Lynn argues, explains the evolution of race differences in human intelligence.

As early humans migrated out of Africa they encountered the cognitively demanding problem of having to survive cold winters where there were no plant foods and they had to hunt, sometimes big game. They also had to solve the problem of keeping warm. This required greater intelligence than was needed in tropical and semi-tropical equatorial Africa where plant foods are plentiful throughout the year. Lynn shows that race differences in brain size and intelligence are both closely associated with low winter temperatures in the regions they inhabit. He gives a figure of 1,282 cc for the average brain size of sub-Saharan Africans, as compared with 1,367 cc for Europeans and 1,416 cc for East Asians.

Since I have argued many of the same positions as Lynn in my book Race, Evolution, and Behavior, I will add that Lynn’s brain size data are backed by a great deal of independent, converging evidence, including that from brain weights at autopsy, endocranial volume, and external head size measures. (My book provides many details of individual studies.) Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging studies make clear that the relation between brain size and intelligence is highly reliable. Lynn is on very safe ground in his statements here.

-more here from Prof. J. Phillipe Rushton

Here is more from Prof. Richard Lynn in regards to his research on IQ and the wealth or poverty of nations.

Basically, it seems, the early migrants who spread out across the earth faced a variety of environments which either worked to thin out the unintelligent or allowed them to flourish.
In Eurasia, colder climates thinned out the less intelligent (allowing those of high IQ to pass on their genes) while engendering a more altruistic sense of cooperation given rise from the strenuous environment.
On the other hand, in Africa gathering food and basic survival was easier, which neither thinned out the less intelligent, nor gave rise to a need for a reciprocal-based society. (it is important to note that the environment and circumstances in which these racial differences in intelligence and personality/moral-traits took place, occurred over tens of thousands of years in varying geographic and environmental conditions and thus cannot be replicated)

This is also reflective in the societies of the middle-east where the environment is in between the extremes of both the north and the south, and where the average IQ also sets in the medium.
In Europe the harsh climate gave way to the family-based unit (within a greater non-related community) consisting of a husband, wife and children.
In Africa, the moderate climate gave way to less need for familial bonds and the societal attributes that arise from them.
But in the middle-east where the climate was in-between the extremes, a nomadic, tribal based society took form based on large extended families. This, more than likely, is the reason for the earlier rise of city-states in that region and there subsequent fall to other tribal-based communities where tribal(familial) conflicts persist to this day. In this environment those of exceptional IQ would easily dominate and direct the majority, whose average IQ was more moderate.
Further north in Europe, where the climate thinned out the dumb and thus increased the percentage of the bright, larger communities came about slower as the larger field of high IQ persons gave rise to more competition between a variety of peoples, slowing the conglomeration of power and civilization into singular locations...